Biomass is converted into energy and then electricity by different processes. In these processes, biomass is directly combusted with oxygen in power plants, while in co-combustion, it is burned together with a fossil fuel. Various gases and vapors are formed by this process. The decomposition of organic substances by heating in an oxygen-free environment is pyrolysis. At this stage, carbon, combustible and non-combustible gases are obtained. When this process is applied by doubling the temperature, the process is called gasification. The gasification process produces a gas consisting of CO and H2. The gases formed in these systems pass through the gas cleaning units and come to the turbines and turn the turbines into rotational energy.
Anaerobic digestion is the process of decomposing the biomass into its chemical components by keeping it in an oxygen-free environment at the appropriate temperature and time. In this process, where fermentation can be given as an example, the gas is called biogas, which is a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, is released. Here, as in other methods on the road from biomass to electricity, gas is firstly cleaned. Methane gas, which is separated by gas cleaning, comes to internal combustion engines and burns here and turns into rotational energy.
The biomass transformed into rotational energy creates a magnetic field in energy converters such as alternators. In the alternator consisting of conductors, current is generated by changing the magnetic field in a single conductor. With the formation of current, electricity is produced and some of the generated electricity is used in the facility, while the rest is distributed to the city with the help of transformers.